Unia Europejska

foto Piotr Ślipiński

Acta Chiropterologica, 5(1): 1-13, 2003

Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data provide resolution

to sister-group relationships within Pteronotus

(Chiroptera: Mormoopidae)

Ronald A. Van Den Bussche and Sarah E. Weyandt

Department of Zoology and Collection of Vertebrates, 430 Life Sciences West, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078, USA; E-mail of RAVDB: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Whereas it is generally agreed that the Neotropical bat family Mormoopidae, as well as the two mormoopid genera (Mormoops and Pteronotus) are each monophyletic, relationships among the six extant species of Pteronotus remain unresolved. The purpose of this study was to evaluate phylogenetic relationships within Pteronotus using DNA sequence data from the mitochondrial ribosomal and cytochrome b genes and the nuclear Recombination Activating Gene-2 based on likelihood inferential techniques (maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetics). Results of this study present, for the first time, a fully resolved and strongly supported phylogeny for all relationships within Pteronotus. These data strongly support: sister-group relationships between davyi and gymnonotus (subgenus pteronotus), between macleayii and quadridens (subgenus chilonycteris), and between the subgenera pteronotus and chilonycteris. Pteronotus personatus is sister to this clade and P. parnellii is the most basal lineage of Pteronotus. Although this is the first study to provide a fully-resolved and strongly supported hypothesis for the phylogenetic relationships among species of Pteronotus, future work must focus on phylogeographic surveys within each species because previous studies have suggested that parnellii and personatus may contain undescribed species.

Key words: Mormoopidae, Pteronotus, Bayesian phylogenetics, rDNA, RAG-2, cytochrome b

Acta Chiropterologica, 5(1): 15-29, 2003

Differentiation and species status of the Neotropical yellow-eared bats Vampyressa pusilla and V. thyone (Phyllostomidae) with a molecular phylogeny and review of the genus

Burton K. Lim1, Wagner A. Pedro2, and Fernando C. Passos3

1Centre for Biodiversity and Conservation Biology, Royal Ontario Museum, 100 QueenŃs Park, Toronto, Ontario M5S 2C6, Canada; E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

2Laboratório de Chiroptera, Departamento de Apoio, Produçao e Saúde Animal, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Caixa Postal 341, Araçatuba, Sao Paulo 16050-680, Brasil

3Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Caixa Postal 19020, Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil

A systematic re-evaluation of Vampyressa pusilla warrants the elevation of V. p. thyone from subspecies to species rank based on its distinction from the allopatric V. p. pusilla. Morphological, mensural, chromosomal, and mitochondrial differences define each of these two taxa as divergent lineages. Vampyressa pusilla is endemic to the Atlantic Forest of southeastern South America and V. thyone is found allopatrically in northwestern South America, Central America, and southern Mexico. A molecular phylogenetic analysis of the mtDNA ND3-4 gene region using restriction endonuclease cut sites resulted in a monophyletic, although weakly supported Vampyressa ingroup with Chiroderma, and a clade of Mesophylla and Ectophylla as successive basal outgroup lineages. The phylogeny within Vampyressa, with the exception of V. melissa which is most similar to V. thyone based on karyotypes and morphology, had a topology of ((pusilla + thyone)

+ ((brocki + nymphaea) + bidens)))

Key words: Chiroderma, Ectophylla, Mesophylla, morphology, Phyllostomidae, restriction site mapping,

                Vampyressa, Vampyressa pusilla, Vampyressa thyone

Acta Chiropterologica, 5(1): 31-48, 2003

A new species of the Hipposideros pratti group

(Chiroptera, Hipposideridae) from Lao PDR and Vietnam

Mark F. Robinson1, Paulina D. Jenkins2, Charles M. Francis3,

and Anthony J. C. Fulford4

12 Claremont Villas, All Saints Road, Uplands, Stroud, Gloucestershire, GL5 1TS, British Isles

E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

2Department of Zoology, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, British Isles

3National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0H3

419 Mallow Close, Ely, Cambridgeshire, CB6 3WH, British Isles

A new species of Hipposideros belonging to the H. pratti group is described. The species has been identified from a fairly restricted area in central Lao PDR and adjacent Vietnam, in South East Asia. The species is a large leaf-nosed bat, mid-way in size between the two other species known from the group, H. lylei and H. pratti, and its skull is significantly different in shape compared to the other two species. The new species roosts at least partially in caves in areas of degraded mixed deciduous and semi-evergreen forest as well as in areas of undisturbed semi-evergreen forest. The known distribution of all three species appears be allopatric, however, many areas within the region remain to be surveyed and so subsequent survey work may show the species to be sympatric.

Key words: Hipposideros pratti group, Hipposideros lylei, Hipposideros sp. nov., Lao PDR, Vietnam

Acta Chiropterologica, 5(1): 49-60, 2003

A taxonomic reassessment of Kerivoula lenis Thomas, 1916 (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) including a first record from peninsular India

Juliet Vanitharani1, Albert Rajendran2, Paul J. J. Bates3,

David L. Harrison3, and Malcolm J. Pearch3

1Department of Zoology, Sarah Tucker College, Tirunelveli - 627 007 Tamil Nadu, India

E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

2Research Department of Zoology, St. JohnŃs College, Palayamkottai, Tirunelveli - 627 002,

Tamil Nadu, India

3Harrison Institute, Centre for Systematics and Biodiversity Research, Bowerwood House, St. BotolphŃs Road, Sevenoaks, Kent, TN13 3AQ, Great Britain

In January 2002, a specimen of Kerivoula lenis was collected in Tirunelveli District, southern Tamil Nadu, India. It represents a range extension of over 1950 km. This is the first record of the taxon since its original description from Calcutta in 1916. The taxonomic status of K. lenis is reassessed. It is compared for the first time with K. papillosa and K. flora and more briefly with the nine other species of Kerivoula currently recognised in Asia.

Key words: Chiroptera, India, systematics, distribution, Kerivoula lenis

Acta Chiropterologica, 5(1): 61-74, 2003

Molossid bats from the late Tertiary of Florida with a review of

the Tertiary Molossidae of North America

Nicholas J. Czaplewski1, Gary S. Morgan2, and Tiffany Naeher1

1Oklahoma Museum of Natural History, 2401 Chautauqua Avenue, University of Oklahoma, Norman,

OK 73072-7029, USA; E-mail of NJC: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

2New Mexico Museum of Natural History, 1801 Mountain Road NW, Albuquerque, NM 87104-1375, USA

The fossil history of molossids in the North American Tertiary is among the poorest for any family of bats. The oldest definite record is of Wallia scalopidens of middle Eocene (Uintan) age from Saskatchewan, Canada. One of the youngest records is of Eumops cf. E. perotis from the late Pliocene (late early Blancan) of Arizona, USA. New occurrences detailed herein from the middle and late Tertiary of Florida, USA, begin to fill in the 40-million-year gap between the previous records. They are: (1) an abraded upper molar of an indeterminate genus from the Brooksville 2 locality, Hernando County, of late Oligocene (Arikareean) age; (2) a large and a small upper molar pertaining to two congeneric species similar to Tadarida and Mormopterus, from the Thomas Farm local fauna, Gilchrist County, of early Miocene (early Hemingfordian) age; and (3) a distal humerus from a Tadarida of an unknown species that is larger than extant Tadarida brasiliensis and similarly sized but differently proportioned than in the extinct Pleistocene species Tadarida constantinei. The last specimen is from the Macasphalt Shell Pit, Sarasota County, and is of late Pliocene (late Blancan) age.

Key words: Chiroptera, Molossidae, Florida, Oligocene, Miocene, Pliocene, Tadarida, Mormopterus

Acta Chiropterologica, 5(1): 75-84, 2003

Influence of habitat on the foraging behaviour of the Mediterranean horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus euryale

Urtzi Goiti1, Jose R. Aihartza1, 2, Inazio Garin1, and Javier Zabala1

1Department of Zoology and Animal Cell Dynamics, University of the Basque Country, P.O. Box 644,

E-48080, Bilbao, Basque Country

2Corresponding author: E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

In a previous study on habitat use by Rhinolophus euryale in an Atlantic area (Northern Iberian Peninsula), this bat species foraged exclusively in woodland, including both native deciduous woodland and exotic plantations. As the study was carried out in a landscape that was profoundly altered by industrial forestry, we predicted that in a better preserved landscape this species would select smaller feeding areas located at closer distances from the roost, according to the optimal foraging theory, and would use almost exclusively the preferred habitat, i.e., native deciduous woodland. To test these hypotheses, we radiotracked 14 R. euryale from the largest known breeding colony of northern Iberian Peninsula and determined their habitat selection, spatial foraging pattern, and hunting behaviour. Our predictions on habitat selection, as well as on the foraging site size and on commuting range were confirmed. Rhinolophus euryale used almost exclusively native deciduous woodland, and hedgerows were positively selected. We suggest that the richness of tree species in hedgerows provides a high prey availability sustained in time and space. Our findings show that habitat disturbance constitutes a major cause of decline for R. euryale in the study area.

Key words: Rhinolophus euryale, habitat changes, foraging behaviour, management

Acta Chiropterologica, 5(1): 85-90, 2003

Medium- and long-term reuse of trembling aspen cavities as roosts

by big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

Craig K. R. Willis1, Kristen A. Kolar1, Amanda L. Karst1,

Matina C. Kalcounis-Rueppell1, 2, and R. Mark Brigham1

1Department of Biology, University of Regina, Regina, SK S4S 0A2 Canada

E-mail of CKRW: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

2Present address: Department of Biological Sciences, California State University,

6000 J St., Sacramento, CA 95819, USA

Roost availability may limit some bat populations, implying that there may be a selective advantage associated with the ability to reuse sites on an annual basis. We monitored aspen tree use by Eptesicus fuscus during multi-year studies (spanning up to 10 years) at the same site in Saskatchewan, Canada. We found that reuse of live trees over the medium-term (three years) was common and that, in some instances, reuse over the long-term (nine and 10 years) can occur. Our data also suggest that, over the medium-term, aspen roosts are reused by groups of bats more often than by solitary individuals. Our findings support the hypothesis that cavity roosting bats exhibit between year loyalty, not just to patches of forest but also to specific trees.

Key words: Eptesicus fuscus, forests, roosts, reuse

Acta Chiropterologica, 5(1): 91-95, 2003

The effect of canine tooth wear on the diet of

big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

Y. Reneé Mensing-Solick and Robert M. R. Barclay

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 1N4

E-mail of RMRB: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The purpose of this study was to determine whether canine wear influences the diet of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). We hypothesized that tooth wear reduces the ability to consume hard-bodied insects, such as beetles, and that older E. fuscus (those with worn canines) would thus include fewer beetles in their diet than younger individuals (those with less-worn canines) do. We examined 600 fecal pellets collected from 60 female bats captured at a single maternity colony in southeastern Alberta, Canada. The diets of two groups were similar in composition, despite considerable differences in canine wear. Diets were dominated by beetles (Coleoptera), which accounted for 30 to 40% of the identifiable food items. Younger bats included more beetles in their diet, although the difference was not statistically significant. The results suggest that older bats are still able to use their worn canines to effectively puncture hard exoskeleton, perhaps because of the angular shape of the worn teeth.

Key words: aging, canine wear, Chiroptera, insectivory, predation, senescence, teeth

Acta Chiropterologica, 5(1): 97-105, 2003

The vocal activity of Pipistrellus nathusii (Vespertilionidae)

in SW Poland

Joanna Furmankiewicz

Department of Avian Ecology, Institute of Zoology, University of Wrocław, ul. Sienkiewicza 21,

50-335 Wrocław, Poland; E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Vocal activity of NathusiusŃ pipistrelle (Pipistrellus nathusii) was studied between April-October 1998 in Wrocław, SW Poland. This activity (nocturnal and seasonal), measured as the number of social and echolocation calls recorded along a 2 km convoluted transect, was lowest in April, May and June. In July, vocal activity increased to reach its highest level during August and September. Throughout the study, calls were emitted in the early part of the night from May through June, then switched to the latter part of the evening in August. Seasonally, the number of calls correlated positively with the air temperature; no significant relationship was found between the level of social and echolocation calls, and relative humidity or atmospheric pressure. It is considered that these changes in vocal activity in July were associated with the onset of the mating period, when the males emitted social calls during an advertisement display or from the roosts, performed to attract females for harem formation. The calls of P. nathusii emitted outside the mating period may also have played another social function.

Key words: Pipistrellus nathusii, social activity, social calls, advertisement calls, echolocation

Acta Chiropterologica, 5(1): 107-116, 2003

Postnatal development in the Indian short-nosed fruit bat

Cynopterus sphinx: growth rate and age estimation

Vadamalai Elangovan1, Elangovan Yuvana Satya Priya1,

Hanumanthan Raghuram1, and Ganapathy Marimuthu1, 2

1Department of Animal Behaviour and Physiology, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai - 625 021, India

2Corresponding author: E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

We studied the patterns of postnatal growth and changes in length of forearm, body mass and total epiphyseal gap in the captive free-flying short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx. At birth young were altricial. By day five, their eyes had opened, and the pinnae become unfolded between sixth and ninth day of age. At the age of three days, the mean forearm length and body mass were equivalent to 42.2% and 18.2%, respectively of the values of postpartum females. The length of forearm increased linearly until 36 days and attained 94.1% of mean forearm length of postpartum females at the age of 219 days. Body mass of pups increased linearly until 60 days and attained 72.7% of mean mass of postpartum females at the age of 219 days. The length of total epiphyseal gap of fourth metacarpal-phalangeal joint increased until 15 days of age and subsequently decreased linearly, and closed at about 60 days of age. The age predicting equation based on the length of forearm is valid when its dimensions are between 29.4 mm and 52.4 mm (3-36 days of age). Similar equation but based on the length of total epiphyseal gap is valid when its dimensions range from 47.0 mm to 6.0 mm (15-60 days of age). Growth patterns of forearm length and body mass were best described by the logistic and Gompertz nonlinear growth models, respectively. There was no significant difference in the growth patterns of body mass and length of total epiphyseal gap with reference to lengths of forearm of captive and wild-grown pups.

Key words: Cynopterus sphinx, age estimation, growth curve, growth rate, postnatal development

Acta Chiropterologica, 5(1): 117-123, 2003

The ontogeny of the baculum in Nyctalus noctula and

Vespertilio murinus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae)

Dmitry G. Smirnov1 and Katerina Tsytsulina2, 3

1Department of Zoology and Ecology, Penza State Educational University, Lermontov Street 37,

Penza 440602, Russia; E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

2Laboratory of Genetic Diversity, Center for Advanced Science and Technology, Hokkaido University,

N 10 W 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0810, Japan

Patterns of baculum development were studied in Nyctalus noctula and Vespertilio murinus and found to be similar in both species. A cartilaginous baculum anlage was evident at late embryonic stages. Initially, the distal part of the baculum develops during embryogenesis as a cartilage. Then the growth of the shaft and formation of the proximal portion occurs and it is shortly followed by ossification of the whole structure. The baculum continues to grows during the first months of the postnatal life and its length is correlated with that of the forearm. The baculum reaches its definitive shape and size by the age of 1.5 month in N. noctula and two months in V. murinus. Therefore, after this time period, the shape and size of the baculum cannot be used for age determination.

Key words: Chiroptera, Nyctalus noctula, Vespertilio murinus, baculum, ontogenesis

Acta Chiropterologica, 5(1): 125-141, 2003

A conservation assessment of the bats of the Simandou Range, Guinea, with the first record of Myotis welwitschii (Gray, 1866) from West Africa

Jakob Fahr and Njikoha M. Ebigbo

Department of Experimental Ecology (Bio III), University of Ulm, Albert-Einstein Allee 11,

D-89069 Ulm, Germany; E-mail of JF: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

We report on the results of a bat survey of the Pic de Fon, Simandou Range, southeastern Guinea. This bat survey was part of a larger Rapid Assessment Program (RAP) study conducted by Conservation International in an area currently explored for iron-ore mining by an international company. We document a speciose bat assemblage characterised by forest species, including bats such as Epomops buettikoferi, Rhinolophus guineensis and Hipposideros jonesi that are endemic to Upper Guinea or West Africa. The sympatric occurence of three species of Kerivoula is noteworthy, with K. phalaena representing the first record for Guinea. Moreover, three individuals of WelwitschŃs mouse-eared bat, Myotis welwitschii, were captured during the survey. This is the first record for West Africa and represents a range extension of minimally 3,400 km to the northwest from the nearest known localities. We review the distribution of this species in Africa and conclude that the species shows a paramontane distribution pattern (sensu Koopman, 1983). We also report M. welwitschii for the first time from Burundi. Our results of the RAP survey as well as the occurrence of bat species that are endemic to the Upper Guinea Highlands highlight the outstanding regional importance of the montane habitats of West Africa in general, and of the Simandou Range in particular for the conservation of bats in Africa.

Key words: biogeography, Chiroptera, Ethiopian Region, first records, Myotis welwitschii, Rapid Assessment

                Program, Upper Guinea, Vespertilionidae

Acta Chiropterologica, 5(1): 143-150, 2003

Internal cave gating for protection of colonies of the endangered

gray bat (Myotis grisescens)

Keith W. Martin1, David M. Leslie, Jr.2, Mark E. Payton3,

William L. Puckette4, and Steve L. Hensley5

1Department of Mathematics and Science, Rogers State University, Claremore, OK 74017, USA

E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

2United States Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, Oklahoma Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, 404 Life Sciences West, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA

3Department of Statistics, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA

4Poteau Public Schools, Poteau, OK 74953, USA

5United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Sequoyah/Ozark Plateau National Wildlife Refuge,

222 South Houston, Suite A, Tulsa, OK 74127, USA

Persistent human disturbance is a major cause for the decline in populations of many cave-dwelling bats and other sensitive cave-obligate organisms. Cave gating has been used to eliminate human disturbance, but few studies have assessed directly the impact of such management activities on resident bats. In northeastern Oklahoma, USA, 25 entrances of caves inhabited by two endangered species and one endangered subspecies of bats are protected from human entry with internal gates. Because cave gates may impede ingress and egress of bats at caves, we evaluated the impacts of internal gates before and after their construction at six colonies of endangered gray bats (Myotis grisescens) from 1981 to 2001. No caves were abandoned by gray bats after the construction of internal gates; in fact, total numbers of gray bats using the six caves increased from 60,130 in 1981 to 70,640 in 2001. Two caves harbored more gray bats after gating, and three caves had no change in gray bat numbers after gating. We also compared initiations of emergences at three gated and three open-passage caves in June and July 1999-2000. No differences in timing of initiation of emergence were found between colonies in gated versus open-passage caves. Our results support the use of internal gates to protect and thereby enhance recovery of colonies of endangered gray bats. Additional research is encouraged to confirm that our observations on gray bats are generally applicable to other species of cave-dwelling bats.

Key words: cave protection, cave conservation, emergence counts, endangered bats, Oklahoma


Acta Chiropterologica, 5(1): 151-160, 2003

Short Notes

Discovery of the Bartica bat Glyphonycteris daviesi (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae)

in Trinidad, West Indies

Frank M. Clarke and Paul A. Racey

School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 2TZ, Scotland, United Kingdom

E-mail of FMC: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Key words: Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae, Glyphonycteris daviesi, new record, Trinidad


The occurrence of hibernating Pipistrellus pipistrellus (Schreber, 1774) in caves of The Carpathian Basin

Zoltán L. Nagy and László Szántó

Transylvanian Museum Association, 3400 Cluj, Op.1 Cp.191, Romania; E-mail of ZLN: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Key words: Carpathian Basin, distribution, Pipistrellus pipistrellus, Romania, underground hibernacula


Acta Chiropterologica, 5(1): 161-162, 2003

Hutson, A. M., S. P. Mickleburgh, and P. A. Racey. 2001. Microchiropteran Bats: Global Status Survey and Action Plan. IUCN, Gland, 259 pp. ISBN 1-8317-0595-9, US$ 30.00

LaVal, R. K., and B. Rodríguez-H. 2002. Murciélagos de Costa Rica. Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, Santo Domingo de Heredia, 320 pp. (pb.). ISBN 9968-702-63-3, price unknown

Acta Chiropterologica, 5(1): 163, 2003

13th International Bat Research Conference Preliminary Information